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走进日本 当前位置:首页 > 走进日本 > 【东莞谢岗日语培训机构】日本小学生的体育课
【东莞谢岗日语培训机构】日本小学生的体育课
来源:东莞日语培训机构时间:2014/9/29浏览量:

日本学生的体育课,根据小学、中学、高中等的不同而要求不一样。

 东莞谢岗日语培训机构 
小学的“体育”,主要要求小学生们“通过适当的运动经验来理解健康与安全,培养能贯彻一生的喜爱运动的资质和基础能力(东莞谢岗日语培训机构),并同时促进健康、提高体力,培养明快的生活态度。”

 东莞谢岗日语培训机构 
因此,日本小学生们的体育课,对1-2低年级的要求是遵守规则,重视协调性,通过各种运动游戏为今后先打下基础;3-4中年级则增加了“保健”单元,在各类运动课程的基础上,还增加了讲义形式的课程,由老师给学生们讲解一些相关的理论知识;而5-6高年级则要求一定的记录挑战。

 东莞谢岗日语培训机构 
出于这样的指导理念,日本小学的体育课,除了体操、跑、跳远、跳高、倒立、以及保护地垫上的跳跃、翻滚,等等身体活动之外,还有跳绳、足球、篮球、棒球、排球、跳山羊、单双杠、呼拉圈、独轮车、自行车、等器械或球类运动。

 东莞谢岗日语培训机构 
对于这些常规的体育运动,日本文部省根据各个不同项目,除了大方向的指导手册外,并没有特别硬性的达标要求,所以每个学校的具体目标,会制定得不一样。例如说跳远:我家小学生所在的学校,老师会发给每个学生一张“跳远纪录表”,学生们在每次上完跳远课后,记录下来每一次跳远的成绩---学校并不硬性规定学生必须跳多远的距离,但要求做到每一次都能比前一次有所进步,能够不断超越自己就好。因为这所学校认为:体育教育不能等同于“运动”,作为一种教育,“体育”最重要的是培养运动精神,而不断超越自己,就是一种运动精神。

 东莞谢岗日语培训机构 
此外,还按季节划分出不同的体育课内容。例如冬季的耐寒马拉松训练、夏季的游泳课等。

 东莞谢岗日语培训机构 
这儿主要介绍冬季的耐寒马拉松训练和夏季的游泳课。

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一:冬季耐寒训练
日本孩子大都从幼儿园开始,就接受“冬季耐寒训练”,并全员参加“冬季持久走大会”---这算是日本学校冬季体育训练的一部分。
“走”这个字,在日语中就是“跑”的意思。“持久走”意译为中文,就是“耐力跑”。 每年年底进入冬季开始,日本小学的全体孩子,利用早晨到学校的时间、或者是课余时间,都去操场上跑步训练耐力。跑步时孩子们都必须换上白短袖和藏蓝短裤的“体操服”,穿得就像过夏天一样,有些不喜欢穿袜子的孩子,甚至还赤着脚。我曾问我家小朋友:大冬天短衣短裤地跑步,冷吗?小朋友回答我:跑到一身汗,怎么会冷!还说她们班的男孩子,例如就住在我们家西边的拓弥,跑得又快又好,而且连短袖运动服都不穿,赤膊上阵跑到面红耳赤,浑身蒸气,大冬天光着身子还大声喊热。

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而冬季耐力跑的距离长短,是根据年级不同进行划分的:200米一圈的操场,1-2低年级绕操场跑10圈;3-4年级要求跑15圈;5-6年级则要求努力达到20圈。换算过来,也就是:1-2低年级跑2000米,3-4年级3000米,5-6年级4000米。
在经过差不多一个冬天的训练之后,一般在元旦寒假结束之后,学校会组织一年一度的类似冬季马拉松的“冬季持久走大会”,凡按要求跑完马拉松全程的,都会获得学校颁发的“完走证书”---证书上写着马拉松全程距离、所花时间等。孩子们将“完走证书”带回家后,妈妈都会宝贝般帮忙收起来,因为这意味着孩子的又一份成长记录。

二:夏季的游泳课
或许因为日本是个岛国的缘故,一般日本的公立学校,只要空间条件许可,都会按日本文部省的相关规定,修建属于学校自己的游泳池。所以如果夏天到日本来旅游,看到的日本学生们,一定是一个赛一个黑,个个都像刚从非洲大陆回来的----这都是因为日本学校的老师一到夏天,就领着孩子们在室外游泳池上游泳课,所以不管男孩女孩人人都晒得黑乎乎的。
夏天的游泳课也是根据低、中、高的不同年级而要求不一样的。
例如:1-2低年级,即使在日本文部省网站公开的“小学体育手册”中,也不叫“游泳课”,而叫“玩水”:低年级上游泳课的目的,是培养孩子们对于水的亲近感,会在水里玩耍、移动、浮游、掌握玩水的心得和水中呼吸,并懂得注意安全;
而3-4中年级,则要求能够初步学会游泳。学习方法除使用安全海绵垫之类的辅助工具,就是同学之间的“互助”。例如:A同学和两B同学两个人一组,A同学摒除重力,一条直线地浮在水面,而B同学则在前方牵引着A同学的手,慢慢朝前游动---两个人在老师指导下,按这样的方式互相替换着进行游泳练习。夏季快结束时,学校会进行“游泳考核”----学校一般教孩子们蛙泳和自由泳两种。在我家小朋友的学校,3-4年级同学,要求游泳考试蛙泳能游50米、自由泳25米。到5年级则要求蛙泳100米,自由泳50米。而6年级的毕业班,夏天的时候学校会组织“临海训练”,由有经验的老师领着孩子们去下海游泳,要求孩子们在规定海域内必须能游完200米。
“临海训练”一般按年级分班组集体行动,因为最起码要在海边的民宿住上一个晚上,所以对参加的孩子们而言,有点夏季的“海边夏令营”的感觉。
为了保证“临海训练”的安全,在训练开始之前,老师们会先在海边隔离出一片“训练区域”,而参加“临海训练”的负责老师、水泳指导员、医务人员等大人们,都必须穿上救生衣,以随时保护学生们的安全。对于个别游泳能力特别差的孩子,学校会在临海训练时,指定专门的老师负责,进行一对一的指导。
除此之外,从低年级到高年级,每年夏天的游泳课,都还会有“着衣水泳训练”。所谓“着衣水泳”,就是指让孩子穿着普通的日常服装,在不小心“被掉落到水里”后,如何逃生和自救。因为根据数据调查显示:一个会游泳的人,平时穿上泳装如果能游525米远的话,若穿上日常衣服,泳力则起码减少一半,游到250米时便会精疲力竭。因此,即使学校教会孩子们游泳,但在万一遭遇水难事故时,如何掌握有效的自救方法和逃生技巧,显得非常重要。
一般学校游泳课的“着衣水泳训练”,要求起码能达到以下的几个目的:
1:让学生们体会身穿日常服装掉落水中时,是一种什么样的状态?
2:身穿日常服装时,应该使用何种游泳法?要怎么泳才最有效?
3:在身穿日常衣服的状态下,自己能游多远?需要花多少时间?
4:身上的衣服以及鞋子等,对于自己的泳力有什么样的影响?
5:能够边游泳边在浮出水面的同时,做到大声呼救吗?
6:在水中有必要脱掉衣服吗?
7:如果正好身边有浮游物,该如何利用?
8:如果水温非常低,该注意些什么?
9:平时出门去水边钓鱼或玩耍时,必须注意些什么?
除小学体育课之外,2011年开始,日本文部省出台一项新制度:规定所有中学的体育课必须增加“武道课”,。提出这一要求的目的,据说是为了尊重并提倡日本“文物两道”的传统文化。各所学校可以根据自身条件,从空手道、柔道、少林拳法、剑道、相扑等不同武道之中,选择一种作为学校必修的“武道课”。目前这一规定已经在日本全国各所中学高中实施,“武道课”虽然受到热爱武道的老师和同学们的欢迎,但也引起运动资质较差的学生和家长们的不安。其中所包含的安全隐患,也正在唤起日本社会各界的注目和重视。

 

Japanese students of physical education, according to the primary school, middle school and high school's different requirement is different.
Elementary school "sport", the main requirements the pupils "by proper exercise experience to understand the health and safety, training to carry out a lifetime love sports basic qualification and ability, and improve health, strength, at the same time cultivate lively attitude to life."
Japanese elementary school pupils, therefore, physical education, the requirement of 1 or 2 junior is follow the rules, pay attention to coordination, through all kinds of sports game to lay the foundation for the future; Increased at the intermediate level 3-4 "care" unit, on the basis of all kinds of sports curriculum, also increased the notes in the form of course, the teacher to the students some relevant theoretical knowledge; And 5-6 senior challenge requires certain records.
For the guidance of this idea, the Japanese elementary school physical education, in addition to gymnastics, run, jump, jump, handstand, and jump, roll, protect the mat and so on physical activity, and rope skipping, football, basketball, baseball, volleyball, jump goat, horizontal bar & parallel bars, hula hoop, wheelbarrow, bicycle, such as equipment or ball games.
For these conventional sports, Japan or according to the different projects, in addition to the general direction of the guide, and no special rigid standard requirement, so each school's specific goals, will develop differently. For example, the long jump: in my elementary school, the teacher will give each student a "long jump record table", the students jump after class is finished in time, recorded every long jump results - how far is the school students are not hard and fast rules must jump distance, but each time it can progress than the last, can constantly surpass themselves. Think: because this school physical education can not equal to "sport", as a kind of education, "sport" is the most important is to cultivate the spirit of sports, and continuously surpass ourselves, is a kind of sports spirit.
In addition, according to season divided into different physical education content. For example, the winter hardy marathon training, summer swimming lessons, etc.
Here introduces the winter hardy marathon training and summer swimming lesson.
A: cold winter training
Most Japanese children from kindergarten began, take the "winter hardy training", and the full "enduring winter conference" - this is part of the winter sports training school of Japan.
The word "walk", is the meaning of "run" in Japanese. "Persistent" free translation into Chinese is "endurance running. Into the winter at the end of each year, Japan's elementary school all the children, used to school in the morning time, or is their spare time, go to the playground running endurance training. When running the children must be changed into white short-sleeved and purplish blue shorts "gymnastics", dressed like a summer, some of the children don't like to wear socks, even barefoot. I have asked my kids: winter jacket running shorts, cold? Kid answer me: run to a sweat, how cold! Also said that their class of boys, such as living in our house on the west side of the messiah, run very fast and good, and don't even wear short-sleeved clothes, shirtless ran to flushed, and steam, loudly shout hot winter naked.
The winter endurance run length, the distance is divided according to different grade: 200 m playground in a circle, 1-2 lower grade 10 laps around the playground; 3-4 grade requirements 15 laps; 5 to 6 grade insist on efforts to reach 20 laps. Conversion, namely: 1-2 junior ran 2000 meters, grade 3 to 4, 3000 meters, 5 to 6 grade 4000 meters.
After almost a winter training, usually on New Year's day after a winter vacation, the school will organize the annual winter marathon like "enduring winter conference", who run the marathon by the requirement, will receive "the certificate" issued by the school -- -- -- -- on the certificate the marathon distance, it takes time and so on. Children will finish "certificate" after home, mother will help to take up as a baby, because it means that the child's a growth record again.
2: the summer swimming lesson
Maybe because Japan is an island nation, general public schools in Japan, as long as space conditions permit, can according to the regulations in Japan or to build schools own swimming pool. So if summer to Japan to travel, see the Japanese students, must be a game a black, all are like just back from the African continent - this is because the Japanese school teacher once in summer, it took the children swimming lessons in the outdoor swimming pool, so whether boys and girls all dark tan.
Summer swimming lesson is according to the low, medium and high grade of the request is not the same.
For example: 1-2 in the lower grades, even in Japan or open "the elementary school sports manual" of the site, also don't call "swimming class", which is called "water play" : the purpose of junior swimming lessons, is to cultivate the children for water affinity, will play in the water, mobile, plankton, master the experience of playing with water and the water breathing, and pay attention to safety.
While 3-4, at the intermediate requested preliminary learn to swim. Study methods in addition to the use of safe rubber cushion auxiliary tools, such as "mutual aid" is my classmates. A students and B students, for example, A group of two people, A classmate eliminates the gravity, A straight line to float on the surface of the water, and B students is pulling ahead A, the hand of the classmate, swam slowly forward - two people under the guidance of the teacher, according to this way to replace each swimming exercise. At the end of the summer, the school will be carried out in general teaching assessment of "swimming" - school children breaststroke and freestyle. In my children's school, the students in grade 3 or 4, swim breaststroke test can swim 50 meters, 25 meters freestyle. Through grade 5 requires 100 meters breaststroke, freestyle 50 meters. Graduating class and grade 6, summer school will organize "linhai training", by experienced teachers led the children to the sea swimming, requiring children within the prescribed area must be able to swim 200 meters.
"Linhai training" general team collective action according to the grade points, because at least in the home stay facility stay for a night of the sea, so for the children to attend, feel like in the summer "the seaside summer camp".
In order to ensure the safety of "linhai training" before the start of the training, the teachers will isolate a piece of "training" area at the beach, and attend the training "linhai" responsible for teacher, water swim instructor, medical personnel and other adults, must be put on life jackets, to protect the safety of the students at any time. For individual swimming ability particularly poor children, schools will be trained in linhai, specify the specialized responsible for the teacher, one-on-one instruction.
In addition, from junior to senior, every summer swimming lessons, will also have a garment water swimming training "". So-called "swim on water, is refers to let the children dressed in ordinary daily clothing, in accidentally" by falling into the water, how to escape and save his life. Because, according to survey data: a person who could swim, usually wear a suit if can swim 525 meters, if put on clothes, daily swim force is reduced by half, at least to 250 meters will be exhausted. So even if the school teach the children swimming, but in one thousand ShuiNan accident, how to master effective self-help method and skill to escape, it is very important.
General school swimming lessons of "the water swimming training", require at least can achieve the following several:
1: let the students experience in the daily clothing drop water, is a kind of what kind of state?
2: in the daily clothing, should use what kind of swimming? How do you swim to the most effective?
3: in the condition of dress in everyday, how far they can swim? Need to spend how much time?
4: clothes and shoes, etc., for their own swimming what kind of impact?
5: to be able to swim while on the surface at the same time, be loud cry for help?
6: it is necessary to take off your clothes in the water?
7: if there are suspended matter, how to use?
8: if the water temperature is very low, what to notice?
9: go out to the water to go fishing or playing at ordinary times, must pay attention to what?
Except primary school physical education, beginning in 2011, Japan or issued a new system that requires all secondary school physical education must add "budo lesson",. Put forward the purpose of this requirement, it is said that is to respect and promote the traditional culture of Japan's "two cultural relics". Schools may, according to their own conditions, from karate, judo, kendo, sumo, shaolin different budo, choosing a school as required "budo lesson". At present this rule has been the national middle school, high school in Japan "budo lesson" despite love budo welcome teachers and students, but also cause movement qualification of poor students and parents. Safety concerns, which contains is also arouse the attention and importance to Japanese society from all walks of life.

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